Friday, December 24, 2010

Hilare Natale (Merry Christmas)


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Sunday, December 19, 2010

Greek and Latin Roots of English: Chloroform


According to the Dictionary Reference Chloroform is "used chiefly in medicine as a solvent andformerly as an anesthetic."
This is an "example" of the use of chloroform.

According to the Etymology Dictionary chloroform derives from french (chlor-) comb. form meaning "chlorine" and (-formic) coined from Latin formica "ant;" so called because it was obtained from red ants".

Chloremia, "is an excess of chlorides in the blood" has got the same root as Chloroform, but at the same time as Chloroleukemia: "is a kind of myelogenous leukemia in which specific tumor masses are not seen at autopsy, but body fluids and organs are green", chloroplast: "any of the chlorophyll-bearing bodies of plant cells.", chlorosis: "A form of chronic anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin and usually associated with deficiency in iron and protein. Also called chloremia."
Other words with de root (-formic) are formicary and formication.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Dermatitis

According to the Merriam - Webster Dictionary dermatitis is "inflammation of the skin", for example, in this hand dermatitis.

Dermatitis derives from Greek derma "skin" + -itis "inflamation".
With the root derma- we have words such us echinoderm, hypodermic or pachyderm.

With the suffix -itis we have words such us gastritis, bronchitis or encephalitis.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Catalogue


According to the Merrian -Webster Dictionary, catalogue means "a complete enumeration of items arranged systematically with descriptive details". In English we can say both catalog (Am.) and catalogue (Brit.).

According to the Etymology Dictionary catalogue comes from Greek katalogos, meaning a list, register, enrollment". Catalogue derives from Greek kata, meaning "down, completely"; and legein, meaning "to say, count".

Cataclysm, catafalque and catastrophe are words with the same root kata. Monologue, homologus and analects are words with the same root legein.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Agriculture


According to the Merriam-Webster agriculture is ''the
science, art, or practice of cultivating the soil,
producing crops, and raising livestock and in varying
degrees the preparation and marketing of
the resulting products
''.

According to the Etymology Dictionary agriculture
derives from Greek,
agri- (a field) and -culture (culti-
vation).

Another words with the root
agri- are: agrarian,
agribusiness and agroecology. Other words with the
root -culture are acculturation, counterculture and
aquaculture.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Cryptogram

According to the Merriam-Webster's dictionari cryptogram it's a comunication in cipher or code or a figure or representation having a hidden significance; for example the cryptogram in this pic.

According to the etymology dictionary cryptogram it comes from crypto "hidden" + gram ''word, letter'' in this order.

Other words with this roots are for example, with crypto cryptology, encrypt or cryptic; and with gram pictogram, telegram or hologram.


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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Cardiopathy


According to the Wiktionary Dictionary cardiopathy is "any disease or disorder of the heart", is very dangerous because it can cause death, is usually caused by asthma or cholesterol, but may also occur elsewhere in the cardiovascular system. There are many types of heart disease, but the most dangerous and common is ischemic heart disease, if it becomes chronic, it is called myocardial infarction.

According to the Dicciomed Dictionary: from Greek, heart disease is formed by: cardio- (heart) + patheia (disease).

Other words with the root cardio- are: cardiogram or cardiopulmonary. Other words with the root -pathy are: gastropathy, psychopaty or encephalopaty.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Circumference

According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary circumference is "the perimeter of a circle" or "the external boundary or surface of a figure or object". In the picture we can see an example of circumference, a ferris-wheel.

According to the Etymology Dictionary circumference comes from Latin circumferentia. Circumference is composed by circum- "around" and -ferre "to carry". 
Circumpolar has got the same roots as circumference. Other words with the root circum- are: circumnavigate, circumspect, circumflex.
Other words with the root ferr- are: ferry, reference , ferris wheel.

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Greek an Latin Roots of English: Cytoplasm


According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary cytoplasm is "the organized complex of inorganic and organic substances external to the nuclear membrane of a cell and including the cytosol and membrane-bound organelles ( as mitochondria or chloroplasts).

According to the Etymology Dictionary cytoplasm derives from Greek Kytos " a hollow, receptable, basket" and from Greek plasm "something molded or created".

Another words with the root kytos- are: cytochrome, cytochemistry and cytochalasin. Other words with the root -plasm are: plasmodesma, plasmolytic and plastically.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Acupuncture


According to the Dictionary Reference Acupuncture is"a Chinese medical practice or procedure that treats illness or provides local anesthesia by the insertion of needles at specified sites of the body. This is an example of acupuncture.
According to the Etymology Dictionary acupuncture derives from the latin (acus-) meaning"needle" + (-puncture) meaning "to prick, pierce".
Acupressure, "an alternative medicine technique derived from acupuncture. In acupressure physical pressure is applied to acupuncture ponits by the hand, elbow, or with various devices" has got the same root as aeronautics, but at the same time as acuity, acumen.
Other words with the root -punctus are punctilious, punctuation, punctuate.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Bibliography


According to the Merriam-Webster bibliography is the history, identification, or description of writings or publications, for example, the bibliography about Cristobal Colon.


Bibliography derives from Greek bibliographia, meaning "the writing of books", but originally "biblio-graphos" (something) drawn or writen. Sense of a listof books that form the literature of a subject.

Other words with the root biblio- are: bibliology, bibliomancy, bibliophile. Other words with the root -graphy are: cosmography, geography, topography.

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Thursday, December 16, 2010

Greek and Latin Roots of English: Disaster


According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary disaster is "something (such as a flood, tornado, fire, plane crash, etc.) that happens suddendly and causes much suffering or loss to many people.

Disaster derives from Middle French and Old Italian; Middle French desastre, from Old Italian disastro, from comes from the Greek pejorative prefix dus- "bad", and aster-/astro- "star". 

Another words with the root astro- are: asteroid, astrolab and astrology. Other words with the root dis- are: disassociate, disambiguate and disorientate.


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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Automobile



According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary automobile is "vehicle designed for passenger transportation ", for example, the vintage car in the pic.


According to the Etymology Dictionary automobile derives from Greek autos "self, one's own", and from Latin mobilis "movable", meaning "self-propelled motor vehicle".

Ohter words with auto-
: autonomous, autonomy and autodidact. With -mobile, we have: mobilization, mobilize/mobilise and immobilism.


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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Barometer


According to the Cambridge Dictionary barometer is " a piece of equipment that measures air pressure (the force of the air) and shows when the weather will change", for example, you can see a barometer in the pic.


According to the Etymology Dictionary barometer derives from the Greek baros, meaning "weight", + -meter measure. Probably coined (and certainly popularized) by English scientist Robert Boyle (1627-1691).


Baritone, from barytonos (deep-toned, deep-sounding) has got the same root as barometer, but at the same time as isobar or barycenterOther words with the root -meter thermometer, speedometer or anemometer.



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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Iconoclast


According to the Merriam- Webster Dictionary iconoclast is "a person who destroys religious images or opposes their veneration, settled beliefs or institutions". In the pic an act of iconoclasm is happening.

According to the Etymology Dictionary iconoclast derives from Greek eikonoklastes,
meaning "breaker or destroyed of images". Iconoclast is formed by eikon-"image" and -klastes "breaker".


Iconography has got the same roots as iconoclast. Other words with the root icono- are: iconodule, iconostasisiconoscope. 

Other words with the root -clast are: osteoclastbiblioclast, bioclast.

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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Greek and Latin Roots of English: Anthropomorphic


According to the Etymology Dictionary, anthropomorphic
refers "to God or gods having human form and human characteristics; of animals and other things ". For example, this dog in the pic.

Anthropomorphic derives from Greek  anthropomorphos, but originally come from words anthropos- "human being" and -morphe "form".
Anthropometric, has got the same root as anthropomorphic, the same as         
 anthropology, anthropic. Other word with the root -morphe are anamorphic, zoomorphic or isomorphic.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Antibiotic


According to the Etymology Dictionary antibiotic is something "destructive to micro-organisms¨. In the picture the antibiotic is a heroe for the body: It is Superantibiotic!!!

Antibiotic derives from French antibiotique¨ , from Greek anti + biotikos¨fit for life¨. As a noun, first recorded 1941, in works of physician Selman Waskman, discoverer of streptomycin.

Other words with the prefix anti- are: anticlimax, antimatter, antipope. Another word with the root -biotic is probiotic, and other words formed by bio-¨life¨ biodiversity and biogenesis.



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Sunday, December 12, 2010

Greek and Latin Roots of English: Anthology


According to the Longman Dictionary of English anthology ''is a set of stories, poems, songs etc by different people collected together in one book'', for example, a collection of films (as this picture shows).


Anthology comes from Latin anthologia, from Greek anthologia "flower-gathering," from anthos "a flower" + logia "collection, collecting," from legein "gather". Modern sense (which emerged in Late Greek) is metaphoric, "flowers" of verse, small poems by various writers gathered together.


Other words with these roots are: with antho- : Anthony (a name of a man) anther and perianth; or with -logy: biology, dermatology and hidrology.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Audible

According to the Merriam-Webster´s Dictionary audible is something "heard or able to be heard". The voice of the singers in the photo is audible thanks to the microphones.


According to the Etymology Dictionary audible derives from Latin audire (to hear). Audible is composed of audio- "sound, especially recorded or transmitted" and -ible which forms adjectives from verbs.


Audiovisual has got the same roots as audible. Other words with the root audio- are : audiotape, audiology, audiophile.
Other words with the suffix-ible/-able are: agreeable / disagreeable, plausible or eatable.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Binocular


According to Encyclopedia Britannica binocular is an "optical instrument,  usually handheld,for providing a magnified stereoscopic view of distant objects, consisting of two similar telescopes,one for each eye,mounted on a single frame". For example, this binocular.


Binocular derives from Latin bini meaning "two by two, two apiece" + ocularis "of the eye" from oculus "eye".


Other words with the prefix bi- are: biannualbicameral, bicycle. Other words with the root oculus are: intraocular, oculist or monocular.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Anniversary.

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary anniversary is "the date on which an event, such as a wedding, occurred in some previous year", for example, 25th anniversary (like Mario Bros in this pic).


Anniversary derives from Latin anniversarius, meaning "returning annually", from annus "year" + versus "to turn".




With the root annus we have words such as annual biannual, semiannual or biennium.
With the root versus, inversion, universe or versatile.

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Greek and Latin Roots of English: Aristocracy

According to the Oxford Diccionary aristocracy means "the highest class in certain societies, typically comprising people of noble birth holding hereditary titles and offices".    In the pic there are people who belong to aristocracy.
 
Aristocracy derives from Greek aristos, meaning "best"; and kratos, meaning "rule, power".

Aristocratic, aristocats (a children´s film whose title plays with these roots) and arete have the same root aristos. Meritocracy, kakistocracy and theocracy have the same root kratos.

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